The encapsulation is the inclusion within a program object of all the resources need for the object to function - basically, the methods and the data. In OOP the encapsulation is mainly achieved by creating classes, the classes expose public methods and properties. The class is kind of a container or capsule or a cell, which encapsulate the set of methods, attribute and properties to provide its indented functionalities to other classes. In that sense, encapsulation also allows a class to change its internal implementation without hurting the overall functioning of the system. That idea of encapsulation is to hide how a class does it but to allow
An abstract class is a parent class that allows inheritance but can never be instantiated. Abstract classes contain one or more abstract methods that do not have implementation. Abstract classes allow specialization of inherited classes.
Abstraction is an emphasis on the idea, qualities and properties rather than the particulars (a suppression of detail). The importance of abstraction is derived from its ability to hide irrelevant details and from the use of names to reference objects. Abstraction is essential in the construction of programs. It places the emphasis on what an object is or does rather than how it is represented or how it works. Thus, it is the primary means of managing complexity in large programs.
Polymorphisms is a generic term that means 'many shapes'. More precisely Polymorphisms means the ability to request that the same operations be performed by a wide range of different types of things.
At times, I used to think that understanding Object Oriented Programming concepts have made it difficult since they have grouped under four main concepts, while each concept is closely related with one another. Hence one has to be extremely careful to correctly understand each concept separately, while understanding the way each related with other concepts.
In OOP the polymorphisms is achieved by using many different techniques named method overloading, operator overloading and method overriding.